Sindhi Tipano (Hindu Calendar)
Sindhi youth specially born and brought up in an European country, part of United Kingdom or in the geographical region called America might be wonder over the fluctuation of dates of Sindhi Festivals every year.
This is due to the difference of time span of Gregorian calendar [year composed of 365 days] and Hindu Panchang or Sindhi Tipano [ year composed of 354 days] in fact this difference of 11 days is resulting in the change of dates for the Sindhi or Hindu festivals because they falls in Sindhi months and we celebrate according to Gregorian calendar.
For the younger sindhi generations, I am trying to put a brief composition of Hindu/ Sindhi year and names of Hindu / Sindhi months with corresponding month of Gregorian Calendar.
Hindhu Panchang - Sindhi Tipano
Hindu/ Sindhi year is composed of twelve lunar months [lunar month is the time taken by moon to revolve around the earth]. Every sindhi month starts with Chandu [New Moon Day] .Through out the sindhi year every third month is considered more fruitful for religious activities and known as "Dharamau Mahino" for instant Kati (Kartik) month is more beneficial for religious activities and Maanghu (Maagh) coming two months (Nahri, Pohu) after it is also a Dharmau Mahino. Every third year is called Purshotam year with 13 months (additional month is named as the original one) .
After every 11 years this additional month is considered more fruitful and hence Kumbh Mela is celebrated after 12 years.
Let us consider some definitions:
Solar Day: The time between two consecutive risings of the sun.
Lunar Day: The time between two consecutive risings of the moon - this time period is also pronounced as Tith
Shuklapaksha [Bright fortnight]: Starts with Chandu [new moon] and ends on Satnarayan in sindhi and Poornima in Hindi [Full moon Day]
Krishnapaksha [Dark Fortnight] During this fortnight apparent size of moon shows a gradual decline till the day of Amavasaya [No Moon night] which is the last day of the month.
Auspicious time of the day
Day and night, each is divided into 15 Mahurats, though there is difference for the time period of each Mahurat but on average one Mahurat means about 48 minutes. Hindu day starts with Braham Mahurat, just before the dawn, First two Mahurats of the day are treated as the auspicious time of the day and considered most favorable for spiritual practices. The last Mahurat of the day [Before the sunset] is utilised for the religious rituals since the Vedic era.
Sindhi new year starts with Chandu of Chaitu month - the day is celebrated as the birthday of sindhi deity Jhulelal through out the world. According to Hindu calendar new year begins on the day of entrance into Makar Raas [Capricorn] the day is celebrated Makar Sankrant. This is the only Hindu Festival which often falls on same date, that is 13th January.
Twelve months of Sindhi Tipano Hindu Panchang & Gregorian Calendar
Hindu [Sindhi] Month
Corresponding English Month
March - April
April - May
May - June
June - July
July - August
August - September
September - October
October - November
November - December
December - January
January - February
February - March